The history of single chip microcomputer is not long, but it develops rapidly. Since the first 4-bit microprocessor was introduced by Intel in 1971, MCU has been developing to a higher level in the fields of integration, function, speed, reliability and application
According to the characteristics of single chip microcomputer, the application of single chip microcomputer can be divided into single machine application and multi machine application. In an application system, only one single chip microcomputer is used as a single-chip application. The application scope of single chip microcomputer includes:
(1) Measurement and control system. The single chip microcomputer can be used to construct a variety of not too complex industrial control system, adaptive control system, data acquisition system, etc., so as to achieve the purpose of measurement and control.
(2) Intelligent instrument. The original measuring and control instruments are modified by single chip microcomputer, which can promote the development of the instrument to the direction of digitization, intelligence, multifunction, synthesis and flexibility.
(3) Mechanical and electrical integration products. The combination of single chip microcomputer and traditional mechanical products makes the structure of traditional mechanical products simplified and the control intelligent.
(4) Intelligent interface. In the computer control system, especially in the large industrial measurement and control system, the interface control and management are carried out by using single chip microcomputer, and the parallel work between the MCU and the host computer greatly improves the running speed of the system.
(5) Intelligent civil products. For example, in many products such as household appliances, toys, game machines, audio-visual equipment, electronic scales, cash register, office equipment, kitchen equipment, etc., the introduction of MCU controller not only greatly enhances the function of the product, improves its performance, but also obtains good use effect.
The multi machine application system of single chip microcomputer can be divided into functional distribution system, parallel multi machine processing and local network system.
(1) Function distribution system. Multi-function distributed system is a multi machine system set up to meet the requirements of various peripheral functions of engineering system.
(2) Parallel multi machine control system. Parallel multi machine control system mainly solves the problem of the rapidity of engineering application system, so as to form a large real-time engineering application system.
(3) Local network system.
The single chip can be divided into general and special type according to the application scope. The special type is designed for a specific product, such as the MCU for thermometer, the single chip computer for washing machine, etc. In general-purpose single chip microcomputer, it can be divided into 4-bit, 8-bit and 16 / 32-bit according to the word length. Although the microprocessor of computer is almost 32/64 bit world, 8-bit and 16 bit microprocessor has been shrinking, but the single chip microcomputer is different. The cost of 8-bit single-chip microcomputer is low, the price is low, and it is easy to develop. Its performance can meet most of the needs, only in aerospace, automobile In high-tech fields such as robot, when a large amount of data needs to be processed at high speed, 16 / 32 bits are needed. In general industry, 8-bit general-purpose single chip microcomputer is still the most widely used one
So far, the application of single chip microcomputer and the development of embedded system in China have gone through more than 20 years. With the gradual penetration of embedded system into all aspects of social life, the teaching of single chip microcomputer course is also changing from the traditional 8-bit processor platform to the 32-bit Advanced RISC processor platform, but the 8-bit processor is still difficult to be replaced. National economic construction, military and household appliances and other fields, especially mobile phones, auto navigation equipment, PDA, intelligent toys, intelligent home appliances, medical equipment and other industries are in urgent need of SCM talents in China. At present, there are more than 100000 engineers engaged in SCM development and application in the high-end industry. However, in the face of the trend of embedded system industrialization and the opportunity of vigorously promoting the construction of "embedded software factory" in China, a large number of SCM application-oriented talents are in urgent need if China's embedded products want to enter the international market and form an industry, This provides a great opportunity for higher vocational students to engage in this kind of high-tech industry.